The Yalta Conference took place between 4th and 11th of February 1945, during the final stages of the Second World War. The conference was attended by three key leaders of the Allied Powers: President Franklin D. Roosevelt of the United States, Prime Minister Winston Churchill of the United Kingdom, and Premier Joseph Stalin of the Soviet Union. The primary objective of the conference was to negotiate a post-war plan for Europe and address the post-war occupation of Germany.
During the conference, the three leaders reached a series of agreements that shaped the course of history for decades to come. The agreements were as follows:
1. Establishment of the United Nations
One of the major achievements of the Yalta Conference was the agreement to establish the United Nations. The three leaders agreed that a new international organization would be established to maintain world peace and security. The UN was established on 24th October 1945, and has since played a key role in international relations.
2. Division of Germany
The conference resulted in the decision to divide Germany into four occupation zones, each under the control of one of the Allies (the US, the UK, the Soviet Union, and France). The capital, Berlin, was also to be divided into four zones. The division of Germany would remain in place until the formal reunification of East and West Germany in 1990.
3. Reparations from Germany
The three leaders also agreed to impose significant reparations on Germany, which had caused untold damage during the war. These reparations would be used to rebuild the countries that had been damaged by the war.
4. Soviet Union`s Role in Post-War Eastern Europe
Stalin agreed to hold free elections in the countries of Eastern Europe that had been liberated by the Soviet Union. However, Stalin was keen to maintain his influence in the region, and as a result, the Soviet Union established communist governments in many of these countries.
Overall, the agreements reached at Yalta were crucial in shaping the post-war world. While the conference was the subject of much controversy, particularly with regards to the Soviet Union`s role in Eastern Europe, it ultimately played a critical role in establishing the groundwork for the post-war order.